Born in Cornwall, UK Methodist. Enlisted 10 November 1915 age 21, labourer. Nok father, residing at Marmion St, Cottesloe. Embarked at Fremantle 12 February 1916 per A28 Miltiades, and served in France where he was twice wounded; first to the shoulder on 5 August 1915 and second, to the arm and both legs on 12 October 1917 and a possible third wounding in France on 8 May 1918. RTA and discharged 19 July 1919. Service medals: BWM and VM.