Born at Cottesloe on 23 March 1900, SD Adventist. Enlisted 8 January 1918 age 18, loco cleaner. Nok father, at Gosnells. In August 1918 he claimed to be a Methodist and conscientious objector and was declared unfit for general service. Uncertain whether he was discharged on 12 August or 24 December 1918. Cottesloe and district Honour Rolls.