Born at Melbourne, Victoria, Presbyterian. Enlisted 24 February 1916 age 23, clerk. Nok mother, Constance Frederika Rule (father deceased) 129 Lawler St Subiaco. Embarked at Fremantle 17 April 1916 per A60 Aeneas and in France in 1917. RTA per SS Orontes January 1918 and discharged 23 May 1918. Service medals, BWM and VM. Later residing at Stirling Hwy Cottesloe.